Cauda Equina Syndrome (CES)

Nerve roots distal to the termination of the spinal cord comprise what is called the cauda equina (CE). Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is low back pain, typically bilateral, saddle sensory disturbances, variable... Read more »

Diffuse Axonal Injury

The third T in the 3T trauma framework (see cases on epidural hematoma and penetrating trauma) refers to “other targets” and concerns delayed complications of traumatic brain injury. These competitions include hydrocephalus,... Read more »

Non-penetrating head trauma

Trauma is the sixth leading cause of death world wide. Non-penetrating head trauma is the most common form of trauma and involves forces that impact but do not penetrate the parenchyma. Motor... Read more »

Penetrating Head Trauma

Trauma accounts for approximately 1 in 3 ER visits nationwide and is a major public health problem. It is the leading cause of death amongst youth and young adults and a major... Read more »