Contralateral definition

Contralateral: adjective; on the opposite side of. Read more »

Ipsilateral definition

Ipsilateral: adjective; on the same side of. Read more »
Central and peripheral facial nerve pathway

Facial nerve palsy

It is important to be able to distinguish central from peripheral causes of facial paralysis. Read more »

High-yield Neuro Topics

These are topics that are often covered and tested in early medical neurobiology courses. They require an understanding of specific neuro-anatomical and systems concepts, while at the same time have clinical relevance. Read more »

Introduction To Neurobiology

The study of neurobiology covers a wide range of topics and disciplines, from neuroanatomy, to biophysics and electrophysiology, and systems biology. Each discipline has its own practices, but they combine to provide... Read more »

Ventral Thalamus – The Thalamic Reticular Nucleus

The TRN sits like a shield covering the ventral surface the thalamus and projects locally to the other nuclei of the thalamus. Read more »

Higher Order Relay Nuclear Groups in the Dorsal Thalamus

The thalamus is not just a relay for primary inputs, it also relays information between cortical areas. Read more »

Primary Relay Nuclear Groups in the Dorsal Thalamus

Sensory information enters the cerebrum through the primary relay nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. For example, retinal ganglion cells synapse in the dLGN (dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus). Read more »

Olfactory Bulb

The olfactory bulb sits on top of the cribiform plate and receives input from the olfactory receptor neurons in the nose. It is the first stage of olfactory processing, and the outputs... Read more »
Horizontal section shows several structures of the basal ganglia, including the globus pallidus, putamen, and the tail of the caudate nucleus.

Basal Ganglia

Basal ganglia have been traditionally considered part of the motor system, modulating movement and, when pathological, producing disorders like Parkinson’s disease. In the last two decades the role of several nuclei in... Read more »