Tectal Plate Glioma

Masses of the pineal region can be divided into pineal and non pineal. Non pineal masses can arise from any of the structures in the region and include glioma (from the tectum... Read more »


Tumors of the pineal gland can be categorized into pineal cell and germ cell depending of their cell type of origin. Unlike germ cell tumors, pineal cell tumors tend to expand the... Read more »

Parotid Lymphoma

Parotid masses are often seen incidentally on CT scans of the brain and neck. The most common primary parotid mass is the benign mixed tumor (also known as a pleomorphic adenoma). These... Read more »


Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors that originate In the glomus cells of the sympathetic nervous system. The most common location is the carotid space, either involving the carotid body (glomus cells involved... Read more »

Orbital Lymphoma

The differential diagnosis for an orbital mass is extensive and includes both benign (cavernous hemangioma, sarcoid, varix, meningioma and pseudotumor) and malignant (orbital lymphoma, metastasis, glioma) lesions. Read more »

Discitis/Osteomyelitis with Epidural Phlegmon

Epidural abscess is a rare condition affecting about 2 in 10,000 patients. Spinal infection typically starts in the disc (discitis), which is seeded through hematogenous dissemination of infection, typically staph aureus and... Read more »

Brain Abscess

Abscess is in the differential for a rim enhancing mass, an important one in neuroradiology and often remembered by the mnemonic MAGIC DR – metastasis, abscess, glioma, infarct, contusion, demyelination and radiation... Read more »
fMRI showing activity in the hand region of the primary motor cortex.

Functional MRI

Functional MRI (fMRI) is a new imaging modality that allows for dynamic evaluation of brain function in addition to structure. In the brain, blood flow is tightly coupled to neuron function. Read more »

Pineal Cyst

The pineal gland is a small (6-8 mm) midline endocrine structure, partly responsible for the production of serotonin , a neurotransmitter responsible for the modulation of “mood”, expressed by its effect on... Read more »


Tumors of the pineal gland can be categorized into pineal cell and germ cell depending of their cell type of origin. Germ cell tumors (GCT’s) are more common than pineal cell tumors.... Read more »